Fair Trade Learning: Ethical standards for community-engaged international volunteer tourism
Eric Hartman, Cody Morris Parris and Brandon Blache-Cohen articulate a set of ethical standards for international volunteer tourism. The standards are focused on promoting Fair Trade Learning (FTL) principles in the management and operation of volunteer programs. The rationale behind the creation of these standards was the growing concern and collaboration of global citizens, international education practitioners and researchers, nongovernmental organization representatives, and community members. This article represents the current ‘‘best practice’’ for maximizing the benefits and minimizing the negative impacts of volunteer tourism programs for both host communities and volunteers. The main contribution of this paper is the articulation of a set of practical standards as well as a conceptual framework for international volunteer tourism. Additionally, the Fair Trade Learning standards articulated in this paper can provide a conceptual framework for future exploration and research into volunteer tourism. While the standards presented in this paper will be useful for stakeholders engaged in international volunteer tour- ism globally, they are particularly relevant for the inter- national volunteer tourism industry in Africa, the leading destination region.